Consultant Working for Gender Based Violence Paper

The UN Gender Programme Coordination Group (PCG) is the main mechanism for coordination of UN agencies working on promotion of gender equality and women’s empowerment.  The Gender PCG is responsible for supporting gender mainstreaming in the work of the UN Country Team, collaborative policy advice and advocacy on gender issues within the UN and with partners, and ensuring a common voice on gender equality and women’s empowerment in dialogues and forums with government and other partners. 
The Gender PCG  has agreed to commission a paper on Gender Based Violence .  This paper will be one of a series of three issues papers being commissioned by the UN Gender PCG. 

These issues papers are designed to:
- Provide substantive gender, culture and human rights analysis of an issue or related set of issues, where research, analysis and programming to date has been insufficient.
- Draw on existing data, research, programme documentation and additional qualitative data collection via key informant interviews and or focus groups, and/or carry out further analysis of existing data.
- Inform development of background papers for the next SEDP/SEDS, development of the One Plan 2012-16, including the Joint Country Assessment currently underway in 2009-2010 and the National Strategy on Gender Equality (2011-2015)
- Contribute to development of the UNCT’s approach and programming on gender in the One Plan, in the context of the UN’s role in providing upstream policy advice to the Government of Viet Nam.
- Feed into development of the Gender PCG’s strategy for i) gender programming in the One Plan, ii) gender mainstreaming in the UN and One Plan implementation and iii) the PCG’s own vision and role to 2016.

These terms of reference outline the rationale for the paper, the key deliverables and timeframe for preparing the paper, and the qualifications and experience required.
Gender based violence
The UN Declaration on the Elimination of violence against women (article 1) defines violence against women as: 
“Any act of gender based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life.”  
The term “gender based’ is used to highlight the need to understand violence within the context of women and girls subordinate status in society. 
In August 2008, a review of Gender Research (only research available in English) was carried out by the Gender PCG.  The research showed that there is a relatively large amount of research on domestic violence, though it is still small in scope and not generalizable to the population.  Though, there is enough research to show that domestic violence exists in all regions of Vietnam, among all social classes and ethnic groups. 
Existing studies in Vietnam also show that physical violence, emotional violence and sexual violence varies from 16% -37%, 19%-55%, and 6,6% - 33% respectively  (Vung, Ostergren et al. 2008), (Luke, Schuler et al. 2007), (UNFPA 2007), (Loi, Huy et al. 1999) though methodologies and definitions used and sample sizes vary.  These figures likely reflect under reporting due to the women’s feeling shame, fear for their safety or fear of a family “losing face”.  The methodology for the WHO Multi-country study was applied to research in Ba Vi and found that sexual violence within marriage is a very sensitive subject in Vietnam.  Previous research shows than many men and women believe it is a man’s right to have sexual relations with his wife and therefore do not understand the concept of forced sex or marital rape (Loi et. al 1999 and Phan Thi Thu Hien, 2005). 
The Gender Research review also found very little information on rape, sexual harassment in the work place and in other contexts and elder abuse of women. In relation to trafficking of women, many Vietnamese women are trafficked for sexual exploitation mainly to China, Cambodia, Taiwan, and South Korea. Ministry of Public Security estimates tens of thousands have been trafficked over the last decade. According to existing research evidence by INTERPOL and UNICEF, approximately 60% of the estimated 45,000 prostitutes in Phnom Penh are Vietnamese. Children under age of sixteen represent nearly 15% of all women and girls trafficked to Cambodia. According to Government statistics, 430 victims were identified in the first half of 2008, including 160 victims rescued and 238 repatriated.
Currently, there is a lack of a comprehensive overview of GBV in Vietnam.  By bringing together existing research and information on programming with strategic recommendations, this paper will provide key inputs to the development of the SEDP/SEDS, One Plan 2012-2016, National Strategy on GE and provide guidance to support the implementation of the Gender Equality and Domestic Violence Laws and legislative and policy revisions that are needed.  This paper will also inform the strategic planning and programming of other UN PCGs such as Protection PCG, Health and Reproductive Rights, Social Policy and HIV.  Though papers will be jointly commissioned MOLISA and UNIFEM in late 2009/early 2010 to inform the development of the National Strategy on Gender Equality, the proposed papers will cover 8 areas listed in GE Law, which will not include GBV.  In late 2009/early 2010, GSO and WHO will apply the WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women Survey methodology in Vietnam, which will include qualitative research on men. These findings will give a national level prevalence and further complement the finding of this paper. Additionally, given the sensitive nature of the topic and the lack of information on key areas of GBV, the Gender PCG feels it is strategic to develop an independent paper to highlight how to move forward this topic in policy and programming.

The purpose of this paper is to take forward the understanding of Gender Based Violence  in Viet Nam, building on existing data and research wherever possible, in order to inform Government policy, including the SEDS/SEDP, National Strategy for Gender Equality and the  development of the One Plan. 

Scope of the paper
This paper will focus on gender based violence against women age 15 and older, and their experiences with violence and the forms of support and services that are available.  It will also analyze the formation of masculinities and patriarchy that contribute to gender based violence as well as men’s experiences as perpetrators of violence and the application of laws addressing violence and the services available to them. Though the UN acknowledges that violence against men and boys exists, the majority of gender based violence occurs against women and therefore will be the focus of this paper.   Additional analysis on men and boys is invited at a further stage.

Key research questions for the study are as follows:
- Prevalence, emerging trends and factors contributing to GBV in Vietnam
- What is known about the prevalence about the various forms of GBV?  Are there any new trends emerging about forms of GBV?
- What values and attitudes of men, women and communities contribute to GBV in Vietnam? What other factors contribute to GBV in Vietnam? Are there any new trends emerging?

Policy and legislation
What legislation and policies exist to prevent and address GBV?  What is missing in the existing legislation and policies? What are the obstacles to changes in legislation or implementation of legislation?

Provision and access to justice
Are women able to access justice in order to seek redress in cases of GBV?  What data exists on women reporting cases of GBV?  What data exists on women seeking and winning cases of redress? What are the barriers that women face? What barriers do the legal system face (police, courts, etc.)? What are the obstacles to change?

Provision and access to services
What services exist to prevent and address GBV for women? To what extent are women using these services? What are the challenges to effective implementation of services?   What are the barriers for women to seek services? Which new services are needed to effectively address GBV?
What services exist for prevention of DV among men and boys and changing cultural norms regarding expectations of masculinity?  What service exists for working with perpetrators?

Data and reporting mechanisms
What types of reporting mechanisms in place at local, ministerial and national level to monitor GBV and what statistics are routinely collected? What are the gaps in reporting? What are the obstacles to data collection and reporting?

How are GBV policies and programmes resourced in Vietnam? What are obstacle sor shortcomings to resources allocation and budgeting for GBV?
Drawing on available data and research, together with additional qualitative data sources (interviews and/or discussion groups, and analysis of existing data), the paper will analyze these questions and will draw conclusions about implications for policy and programming by the UN and Government.

The process for development of the paper will include:
Analysis of the international agreements and normative frameworks that apply to the issue or set of issues including relevant international human rights conventions, such as CEDAW but also other instruments such as the Convention on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, etc. as well as the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development Plan of Action, Beijing World

Conference on Women Platform of Action.
Desk review of available national literature and data, including national policies or strategies, national survey data, qualitative studies, grey literature, and relevant programme and policy papers and reports, including, where relevant, evaluation reports.  Additional gender analysis of existing data sources such as court and police records may also be required.
Stakeholder consultations, key informant interviews and/or focus group discussions to further investigate what is known about the issue, and current policy and programmatic responses by Government, UN organizations and donors and civil society.  The list of stakeholders/key informants will be developed in consultation with the commissioning agency and the Gender PCG.
Development of a draft paper and presentation setting out the key findings and analysis, for discussion at an expert round table meeting with key stakeholders, followed by finalization of the report including recommendations.
The paper should be no more than 20-30 pages in length excluding recommendations, references and annexes.  The paper should follow the following structure:
Executive summary (1-2 pages)
Introduction and policy context for the paper:
Overview of relevant normative frameworks and international conventions and agreements (1 page).
Current relevant national policy and legislative frameworks (1/2-1 page)
Conceptual framework for analysis/approach – eg why this is a critical issue, theoretical approach or framework (1 page)
Summary of issues based on available data and research and additional qualitative data collection, discussion of quality of available data and gaps. (5-10 pages)
Summary of current initiatives and activities being conducted by Government, the UN and donors and civil society to address the issue, by sector, together with an analysis of strengths and weaknesses and gaps and limitations. (up to 5 pages)
Analysis, including implications for policy and programming by UN and Government. (5 pages).
Recommendations (to be added following the expert round-table meeting).
The power point presentation should follow the same structure, and include a set of questions for discussion in the round-table meeting.
Outputs and timeframe
The timeframe for development of the issues paper will be 3 months, comprising 20 working days each of a national and international consultant.  The main deliverables will include:
Draft issues paper to be developed by November 29, 2009.
Comments will be sent by UN to consultant on Monday December 7, 2009.
Consultant will incorporate comments into draft by Monday December 14, 2009.
Power-point presentation to be developed by January 5, 2010.
Issues paper to be finalized following the round-table discussion in late January 2010.

Management arrangements
The paper will be commissioned by UNFPA, in partnership with Gender PCG GBV WG.  The consultants will report to UNFPA for contractual and administrative purposes.  For technical advice and inputs, development of the paper will be led by UNFPA and overseen by the Gender Based Violence Working Group.  The UN Gender Advisor will be responsible for overall coordination and oversight of development of the papers, including consistency and quality control, additional technical advice, and will assist the lead agency in coordinating the round-table expert meeting.

Qualifications and experience: National Consultant
Proven track record conducting research on GBV in Vietnam
Extensive experience in conducting literature reviews and research on gender issues
Experience conducting stakeholder consultations and interviews
Proven gender analysis skills
Sound knowledge of gender issues and gender policy frameworks in Vietnam
Sound knowledge of development sector and key actors including relevant government machinery, the UN, donors and civil society in Vietnam.
Excellent written and spoken English

Qualifications and experience: International Consultant
Proven track record conducting research on GBV in Viet Nam, the Asia Pacific or other regions/, countries
Extensive experience in conducting high-level analysis of gender/gender based violence
Experience in gender analysis of existing data sets and sources
Proven experience conducting literature reviews and qualitative research
Strong stakeholder consultation skills and experience
Experience shaping effective policy recommendations targeting different sectors including government and UN/donor organizations
Understanding of gender issues and gender policy frameworks in Viet Nam and/or internationally
Understanding of development sector and key actors including relevant government machinery, the UN, donors and civil society in Viet Nam and/or internationally.
Excellent written and spoken English

Candidates must submit a completed UN Personal History (P.11) form, (available from, an updated Curriculum Vitae and a cover letter in an envelop marking “Confidential” and “Application for Consultancy Services for Issues Paper “Gender Based Violence”  to the UNFPA Office, 1st Floor, UN Apartment Building, 2E Van Phuc Compound, Ha Noi, or preferably via email to [email protected].
Closing time for applications is 5pm on 26th October 2009.
Only short-listed candidates will be contacted. UNFPA reserves the right to select the consultant at the indicated or lower level and prior to the closing date. 
There is no application, processing or other fee at any stage of the application process.
UNFPA does not solicit or screen for information in respect of HIV or AIDS and does not discriminate on the basis of HIV/AIDS status

Job Details
Organisation Name: 
Ha Noi
Application Deadline: 
Mon, 2009-10-26